A vaccine contains an antigen that is given to individuals in order to establish protective immunity against a particular infection.

Vaccine design

Vaccine design is the process of targeted adjustments of a vaccine.


In biological research, validation refers to providing evidence for the suitability of a method or substance or for the validity of a theory.

Vector vaccine

Vector vaccines are genetically modified (and therefore harmless) viruses that serve as vectors for inserting the genetic material of a pathogen into target cells. The introduced DNA sequence can imitate an infection and trigger the production of antibodies.

Viral hepatitis

Viral hepatitis is an infection with hepatitis viruses, which harms the liver.

Viral load

Viral load is the quantity of virus in a given amount of patient’s blood.


Viremia describes the (massive) presence of viruses in the blood.

Virostatic agents

Virostatic agents are drugs to fight viral infections.


Virulence is a pathogen’s ability to cause disease. It determines the degree of pathogenicity.

Virus blocker

A virus blocker is a substance that inhibits viral replication.